Changed in version 2.3: Disabled module.
Warning: The documentation has been left in place to help in reading
old code that uses the module.
This module contains the RExec class, which supports r_eval(), r_execfile(), r_exec(),
and r_import() methods, which are restricted versions of the standard
Python functions eval(), execfile() and the exec and import statements. Code executed in
this restricted environment will only have access to modules and functions that are deemed
safe; you can subclass RExec to add or remove capabilities as desired.
Warning: While the rexec module is designed to
perform as described below, it does have a few known vulnerabilities which could be
exploited by carefully written code. Thus it should not be relied upon in situations
requiring ``production ready'' security. In such situations, execution via sub-processes or
very careful ``cleansing'' of both code and data to be processed may be necessary.
Alternatively, help in patching known rexec vulnerabilities would be
Note: The RExec class can prevent code from
performing unsafe operations like reading or writing disk files, or using TCP/IP sockets.
However, it does not protect against code using extremely large amounts of memory or
- Returns an instance of the RExec class.
hooks is an instance of the RHooks class or a
subclass of it. If it is omitted or
None, the default RHooks
class is instantiated. Whenever the rexec module searches for a
module (even a built-in one) or reads a module's code, it doesn't actually go out to the
file system itself. Rather, it calls methods of an RHooks instance
that was passed to or created by its constructor. (Actually, the RExec
object doesn't make these calls -- they are made by a module loader object that's part of
the RExec object. This allows another level of flexibility, which
can be useful when changing the mechanics of import within the
By providing an alternate RHooks object, we can control the file
system accesses made to import a module, without changing the actual algorithm that
controls the order in which those accesses are made. For instance, we could substitute an RHooks object that passes all filesystem requests to a file server
elsewhere, via some RPC mechanism such as ILU. Grail's applet loader uses this to support
importing applets from a URL for a directory.
If verbose is true, additional debugging output may be sent to standard
It is important to be aware that code running in a restricted environment can still call
the sys.exit() function. To disallow restricted code from exiting
the interpreter, always protect calls that cause restricted code to run with a try/except statement that catches the SystemExit exception. Removing the sys.exit()
function from the restricted environment is not sufficient -- the restricted code could still
raise SystemExit. Removing SystemExit is not a
reasonable option; some library code makes use of this and would break were it not available.
- Grail Home Page
- Grail is a Web browser written entirely in Python. It uses the rexec
module as a foundation for supporting Python applets, and can be used as an example
usage of this module.