This module is always available. It provides access to the mathematical functions defined
by the C standard.
These functions cannot be used with complex numbers; use the functions of the same name
from the cmath module if you require
support for complex numbers. The distinction between functions which support complex numbers
and those which don't is made since most users do not want to learn quite as much mathematics
as required to understand complex numbers. Receiving an exception instead of a complex result
allows earlier detection of the unexpected complex number used as a parameter, so that the
programmer can determine how and why it was generated in the first place.
The following functions are provided by this module. Except when explicitly noted
otherwise, all return values are floats:
- Return the arc cosine of x.
- Return the arc sine of x.
- Return the arc tangent of x.
atan(y / x).
- Return the ceiling of x as a float.
- Return the cosine of x.
- Return the hyperbolic cosine of x.
- Converts angle x from radians to degrees.
- Return the absolute value of x.
- Return the floor of x as a float.
fmod(x, y), as defined by the platform C
library. Note that the Python expression
x % y may not
return the same result.
- Return the mantissa and exponent of x as the pair
m is a float and e is an integer such that
x == m
* 2**e. If x is zero, returns
0.5 <= abs(m) < 1.
- Return the Euclidean distance,
sqrt(x*x + y*y).
x * (2**i).
- Returns the logarithm of x to the given base. If the base
is not specified, returns the natural logarithm of x. Changed
in version 2.3: base argument added.
- Return the base-10 logarithm of x.
- Return the fractional and integer parts of x. Both results carry the sign of x.
The integer part is returned as a float.
- Converts angle x from degrees to radians.
- Return the sine of x.
- Return the hyperbolic sine of x.
- Return the square root of x.
- Return the tangent of x.
- Return the hyperbolic tangent of x.
Note that frexp() and modf() have a
different call/return pattern than their C equivalents: they take a single argument and return
a pair of values, rather than returning their second return value through an `output
parameter' (there is no such thing in Python).
The module also defines two mathematical constants:
- The mathematical constant pi.
- The mathematical constant e.
Note: The math module consists mostly of thin
wrappers around the platform C math library functions. Behavior in exceptional cases is
loosely specified by the C standards, and Python inherits much of its math-function
error-reporting behavior from the platform C implementation. As a result, the specific
exceptions raised in error cases (and even whether some arguments are considered to be
exceptional at all) are not defined in any useful cross-platform or cross-release way. For
-Inf or raises ValueError or OverflowError isn't defined,
and in cases where
math.log(0) raises OverflowError,
math.log(0L) may raise ValueError instead.
- Module cmath:
- Complex number versions of many of these functions.