This module implements a helper class and functions to quickly write a loop over standard
input or a list of files.
The typical use is:
for line in fileinput.input():
This iterates over the lines of all files listed in
sys.stdin if the list is empty. If a filename is
'-', it is also
sys.stdin. To specify an alternative list of filenames, pass it as
the first argument to input(). A single file name is also allowed.
All files are opened in text mode. If an I/O error occurs during opening or reading a file,
IOError is raised.
sys.stdin is used more than once, the second and further use will return no
lines, except perhaps for interactive use, or if it has been explicitly reset (e.g. using
Empty files are opened and immediately closed; the only time their presence in the list of
filenames is noticeable at all is when the last file opened is empty.
It is possible that the last line of a file does not end in a newline character; lines are
returned including the trailing newline when it is present.
The following function is the primary interface of this module:
- Create an instance of the FileInput class. The instance will be
used as global state for the functions of this module, and is also returned to use during
iteration. The parameters to this function will be passed along to the constructor of the FileInput class.
The following functions use the global state created by input();
if there is no active state, RuntimeError is raised.
- Return the name of the file currently being read. Before the first line has been read,
- Return the cumulative line number of the line that has just been read. Before the first
line has been read, returns
0. After the last line of the last file has been
read, returns the line number of that line.
- Return the line number in the current file. Before the first line has been read, returns
0. After the last line of the last file has been read, returns the line
number of that line within the file.
- Returns true if the line just read is the first line of its file, otherwise returns
- Returns true if the last line was read from
sys.stdin, otherwise returns
- Close the current file so that the next iteration will read the first line from the next
file (if any); lines not read from the file will not count towards the cumulative line
count. The filename is not changed until after the first line of the next file has been
read. Before the first line has been read, this function has no effect; it cannot be used
to skip the first file. After the last line of the last file has been read, this function
has no effect.
- Close the sequence.
The class which implements the sequence behavior provided by the module is available for
subclassing as well:
- Class FileInput is the implementation; its methods filename(), lineno(), fileline(),
isfirstline(), isstdin(), nextfile() and close() correspond to the
functions of the same name in the module. In addition it has a readline()
method which returns the next input line, and a __getitem__()
method which implements the sequence behavior. The sequence must be accessed in strictly
sequential order; random access and readline() cannot be mixed.
Optional in-place filtering: if the keyword argument
is passed to input() or to the FileInput
constructor, the file is moved to a backup file and standard output is directed to the input
file (if a file of the same name as the backup file already exists, it will be replaced
silently). This makes it possible to write a filter that rewrites its input file in place. If
the keyword argument
backup='.<some extension>' is also given,
it specifies the extension for the backup file, and the backup file remains around; by
default, the extension is
'.bak' and it is deleted when the output file is
closed. In-place filtering is disabled when standard input is read.
Caveat: The current implementation does not work for MS-DOS 8+3 filesystems.